Augments Python’s suite of IO functions with useful transparent support for compressed files.

class FileLock(file_name, timeout=10, delay=0.05)[source]

Bases: object

A file locking mechanism that has context-manager support so you can use it in a with statement. This should be relatively cross-compatible as it doesn’t rely on msvcrt or fcntl for the locking. Taken from -support-in-python/

Prepare the file locker. Specify the file to lock and optionally the maximum timeout and the delay between each attempt to lock.

  • file_name – Name of file to lock.

  • timeout – Maximum timeout for locking. Defaults to 10.

  • delay – Delay between each attempt to lock. Defaults to 0.05.


alias of FileLockException


Acquire the lock, if possible. If the lock is in use, it check again every delay seconds. It does this until it either gets the lock or exceeds timeout number of seconds, in which case it throws an exception.


Get rid of the lock by deleting the lockfile. When working in a with statement, this gets automatically called at the end.

exception FileLockException[source]

Bases: Exception

Exception raised by FileLock.


Return the number of open file descriptors for current process

reverse_readfile(filename: Union[str, pathlib.Path]) → Generator[str, str, None][source]

A much faster reverse read of file by using Python’s mmap to generate a memory-mapped file. It is slower for very small files than reverse_readline, but at least 2x faster for large files (the primary use of such a method).


filename (str) – Name of file to read.


Lines from the file in reverse order.

reverse_readline(m_file, blk_size=4096, max_mem=4000000) → Generator[str, str, None][source]

Generator method to read a file line-by-line, but backwards. This allows one to efficiently get data at the end of a file.

Based on code by Peter Astrand <>, using modifications by Raymond Hettinger and Kevin German. -yet-another-implementat/

Reads file forwards and reverses in memory for files smaller than the max_mem parameter, or for gzip files where reverse seeks are not supported.

Files larger than max_mem are dynamically read backwards.

  • m_file (File) – File stream to read (backwards)

  • blk_size (int) – The buffer size. Defaults to 4096.

  • max_mem (int) – The maximum amount of memory to involve in this operation. This is used to determine when to reverse a file in-memory versus seeking portions of a file. For bz2 files, this sets the maximum block size.


Generator that returns lines from the file. Similar behavior to the file.readline() method, except the lines are returned from the back of the file.

zopen(filename: Union[str, pathlib.Path], *args, **kwargs) → IO[source]

This function wraps around the bz2, gzip and standard python’s open function to deal intelligently with bzipped, gzipped or standard text files.

  • filename (str/Path) – filename or pathlib.Path.

  • *args – Standard args for python open(..). E.g., ‘r’ for read, ‘w’ for write.

  • **kwargs – Standard kwargs for python open(..).


File-like object. Supports with context.